from Clive W. Barrow critical state theory
o Welfare State = Regulatory Policies
• Most critical theorists would agree that as the regulatory activities of the welfare state have expanded in scope, the distinction between public and private spheres of life has been steadily eroded across an ever-widening range of social activities. The welfare state has expanded is involvement not only in the regulation of economic relations, such as those between labor and management or those between the corporation and the environment. The state has become similarly involved in also regulating institutions of civil society that are primarily concerned with the development sof personal identity and normative values, such as the family, education and the Church. In this social sphere, the welfare state has been more and more directly involved in the regulation and promotion of specific normative values (e.g. abortion and racial integration) and in the maintenance of specific family structures (e.g., through day care maternity leave, and family allowances). (7)
o Welfare State = Redistributive Policies
• It is worth noting that welfare states have not generally redistributed income among classes as much as they have evened out income throughout the lifetime of individuals within classes.
• Redistribution of wealth and income among organizations has been left to private organizations that still compete for their relative shares in the marketplace. The most prominent examples are the trade unions and employers associations that explicitly negotiate the division of production between wages and profits…Nevertheless the institutionalization of collective bargaining has resulted in very little redistribution of income among classes in most of the welfare states and even less redistribution of wealth over the course of the last century.